Predictive Hacks

# How to get the History of the Commands and their Outputs in Jupyter Notebook

When we work with Jupyter Notebook, it is often possible to run a computationally expensive command without storing it in a variable, where we may want to use it later. The good news is that we do not have to re-run the command since Jupyter stores all the outputs. The following example clarifies the above statement. Let’s assume that we open a Jupyter Notebook and we run a simple command such as:

```5+5
```

Now, let’s say that we want to use the output of the previous cell and add the number 5 to it. We can easily do it by calling the value that we get on the left of the output cell, which is in the form `Out[x]` where `x` is an integer. Let’s have a look at the screenshot below.

As we can see, the `Out[1]` is equal to `10` and the `Out[2]` is equal to `15`. Notice that Jupyter stores all the outputs in a dictionary called `Out`. We can confirm it by running:

```type(Out)
```
``dict``

And the keys of the dictionary are the commands that we have run, starting with 1,2,3,…,n. For example, in our case we have run 4 commands so far, and we have the following keys:

```Out.keys()
```
``dict_keys([1, 2, 3, 4])``

Finally, we can iterate over the output commands by running a for loop such as:

```for k,v in Out.items():
print(k,v)
```
``````1 10
2 15
3 15
4 <class 'dict'>
5 dict_keys([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])``````

Last but not least, the Jupyter notebook stores all the commands that we have run too in a `list` data type called `In`. For example, in our case:

```In
```
``````['',
'5+5',
'5+Out[1]',
'Out[2]',
'type(Out)',
'Out.keys()',
'for k,v in Out.items():\n    print(k,v)',
'In']``````

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